Hieracium scabrum Michaux
The words or terms in red
(actually dark orange) in the text are defined in a
Hieracium scabrum is a perennial herb
native to North America.
Some botanist recognise three varieties
of the North American species:
for others these varieties are mere synonyms.
- Hieracium scabrum var. intonsum Fernald & H. St. John
- Hieracium scabrum var. scabrum
- Hieracium scabrum var. tonsum Fernald & H. St. John
The plant belongs to the
The genus name is said to come form the Greek
ιεραξ, the falcon,
since the Roman naturalist Gaius Plinius Secundas (Pliny the Elder,
AD 23 - August 24, AD 79) believed that the feathery Accipiters (a group
of birds of prey in the family Accipitridae, the hawks family notably)
fed on plants of this genus to strengthen their eyesight and thus,
Hieracium, as named by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia
(34, 114) became the genus name, and by extension the Greek and Latin name of
many species of the Hieracium genus, many of these species with the
Hawkweed vernacular name.
In Latin, the adjective scaber of neutral scabrum means
rough, the epithet referring to
the somewhat rough leaves.
The vernacular name of
Hieracium scabrum is Rough Hawkweed, the Rough
translating the species epithet and the
genus name referring to the fable of
Pliny the Elder.
The French vernacular is Épervière scabre.
Hieracium scabrum has also been known as:
- Hieracium fasciculatum Torr. & Fröl. in DC., non Pursh
- Hieracium scabrum Michx. var. leucocaule Fernald & H. St.
- Hieracium scabrum Michx. var. tonsum Fernald & H. St. John
- Hieracium scabrum Michx. var. intonsum Fernald & H.
Plants of the Hieracium scabrum species are between 30 and 60 cm tall.
They usually do not have basal leaves.
- Mostly single, stout.
- Smooth or with a very short bristly hairs mostly near the top,
- Exuding a milky latex when cut.
- Elliptic or
- With margins usually
- 2 to 6 times longer than wide.
- On an inflorescence of several,
long-stalked heads in open, long, cylindrical clusters.
- Betweeb 1/2 and 1 inch wide when fully open.
- With ray florets only,
yellow in color.
- With phyllaries acuminate.
- Blooming from July to September in my area, 25 km north of Montréal.
Hieracium scabrum is found in dry woods, clearings, in
disturbed sites, and in sandy soil.
Hieracium scabrum is found in eastern Canada, from New Brunswick to
Ontario. It is also found in the eastern USA. The map shows the Canadian
provinces and USA states where the plant can be found.
The Rappahannock used an infusion of the leaves of
Hieracium scabrum or chewed them for diarrhea.
The plant has also been employed for the relief of toothache.
The photos of the gallery were taken either with one of the following:
Minolta DiMAGE 7,
Canon PowerShot A530,
Canon Xt Rebel, usually with the EF-S60mm f/2.8 Macro USM objective,
Fujifilm A 610 and
EPSON Perfection 1650 (scanner).
The title in the window shows the date when the picture was taken,
i.e. jan_30_06... would mean that the photo was taken on the 30th of
January, the 06 is for the 6th picture taken that day.
The month, day and picture number might be followed by a letter which I use
to identify the system used to take the picture.
Click on the thumbnails to get larger view.
The original photos are usually in TIFF format,
the photos shown are generally in JPEG format,
often of dimensions one half (surface one quarter)
for loading time reduction.
The leaves were scanned at 300 dpi,
and the dimensions of the resulting picture divided by 2 (area divided by 4);
this allows to measure the dimensions of the leaves.